我为什么选择金融行业
来源: | 作者:enrolinvestment | 发布时间: 2017-01-11 | 257 次浏览 | 分享到:

来源:大姐早知道

从教育界转行混迹金融界,听到最多的一个问题就是:你怎么转行干金融了?

Who knows?直到最近大姐看到了美利坚合众股份公司的高管名单,似明白了什么:

总统: 川普

副总统:彭斯

国务卿:艾克森美孚董事长

副国务卿:高盛董事长

副国务卿:通用电气董事长

白宫办公室主任:洛克希德马丁董事长

白宫办公室副主任:格鲁曼董事长

白宫办公室副主任:通用动力董事长

科技部部长:波音董事长

科技部副部长:联合技术董事长

科技部副部长:通用汽车董事长

能源部部长:雷神董事长

能源部副部长:福特汽车董事长

能源部副部长:霍尼韦尔董事长

财政部部长:摩根士丹利董事长

财政部副部长:美国银行董事长

财政部副部长:花旗集团董事长

这是对摩根大通最牛逼的实习生——前副董事长卡顿·罗斯的一篇采访,关于他为什么选择金融业?理由是:

金融业就是在用金融资本和智力资本做产品,帮客户搞定各种困难,超喜欢!

那些历史悠久、特别大的金融企业在外人看来很古板,其实随时都有创新的机会。

在金融业,需要和一群聪明的队友斗智斗勇,其乐无穷。

做金融,更需要“情商”,如何把客户变成朋友,其乐无穷。

罗斯:我之前曾经在摩根大通(JP Morgan)纽约总部的销售与交易部(Sale and Trading)实习。当时每天早上5点过起床去上班,在出门时总不忘吐槽这没有生活的假期。但是,每当走进位于纽约市中心最繁华的麦迪逊大道的公司大楼,看着一块醒目的写着JP Morgan的牌子,心里暗暗佩服这家始建于1799年,却依然巍峨耸立的全球金融巨禽。

更令人佩服的是,这家目前资产超过两万亿(2 Trillion)美金,已是美国第一大金融机构的公司,在短短十几年的时间里,从几乎没有投资银行业务,到跻身世界三大投资银行之一。

而在这个背后,有一个最重要的幕后人物:摩根大通销售与交易部(Sales and Trading)创始人、股权业务(Equities Business)创始人,曾统管全球投资银行(Global Investment Banking)和全球股权(Global Equities)的集团前副董事长卡顿·罗斯。

我们可以听听他对金融行业人的一席肺腑之言:

一、进入金融需要何种技能?

罗斯:我认为,想在金融领域成功,你并不需要是经济学或者是金融学专业的。你可以是任何学位的。物理的,英文的,都可以。

当然,有一些基础的技能,比如会计,是很必要的。但是,这些内容都可以在公司短期培训的时候教给你。

我认为最重要的是你要能思考,要能写作,要能分析,还要能和他们一起工作,不管是小团队还是大团队。这些都是你通过任何专业的学习都可以获得的能力。

颜晓川:就从事金融行业而言,如果我就是金融专业,或者商科的,我怎样才能让自己比其他专业,例如物理专业的毕业生更有优势?

罗斯:优势?我的答案是:yes and no。我认为商学院(或者金融学)的教育中,有一些“工具包”是有用的。

这些“工具包”可以让你在刚入行的时候有一定优势。这些“工具包”包括基本的《会计》、《金融》,还有,很多人没有意识到,《运营管理》是极其重要的。至少在我的经历当中是。

颜晓川:《运营管理》对金融很重要?那不是搞生产的吗?

罗斯:我们之前去给别人做IPO,好多公司就是工业型公司。我们去做调查的时候,我就到他们的车间里去看,去做访问。就是因为我学了《运营管理》,他们的整个流程我基本都能听懂。另外,《运营管理》教会你如何管理复杂的体系,从前端到后端。

二、 为何要选择金融行业?

颜晓川:你当时为什么要做金融,为什么喜欢它?

罗斯:我一直喜欢金融。因为,金融是智力产品/思维产品(Intellectual product),而不是实体产品(Physical product)。金融就是用金融资本和智力资本(Financial capital and intellectual capital)去做产品。这是它吸引我的地方。

第二,我真心喜欢和客户一起工作,并且帮助他们搞定各种困难。金融是一个你能做出一个思维的产物出来,然后把它嫁接给一个客户的行业。咨询也差不多是这样,但是我更喜欢金融。因为金融还有个金融市场。

颜晓川:你很喜欢帮助客户,很有成就感吗?

罗斯:我喜欢搞定问题,解决问题。我把金融看作是解决问题的工作。有的人进入金融领域,就是因为他喜欢抽象地把做一些新东西出来。我不这么想,我一直认为金融是用一系列工具去解决一个客户的难题。这是我感兴趣的。有的人只是喜欢沉浸在自己思维的世界里去发挥他的想象,却把自己和客户隔开。对于我来说,我的动机是想帮公司、个人解决困难,帮他们做有意思的事情,然后让他们的生意越做越兴隆。

罗斯:可以这么说吧。金融里面有一部分就是金融工程。这和工程师一样。同样的差别是,有的工程师去建一座桥,是为了让人们能从河的一边走到另外一边。这和我的动机是一样的,我的动机就是想让人们从A点到B点。但是,有一些工程师修桥的动机是因为他们就喜欢修桥,他们就喜欢把零件拼在一起,然后说,看,我修了一座桥。但是,这座桥的目的和功能,他们并不感兴趣。

三、如何在金融业做创新?

罗斯:我们一般觉得那些历史悠久,特别大的金融企业都是很古板的。只有在硅谷这样的新潮的,新公司如春草一样到处生长的地方才有创业家精神。我觉得这个成见是不对的。在任何一个领域,不光是在金融,任何一个好的公司,都在随时创造新的自己,都是在不断去寻找新的做事的方法和路径。你能通过很多的方式来创业,不是一定要去找个车库然后在里面开一家公司,当然这样做是有意义的,但是并不适合所有人。

颜晓川:你在JP Morgan里面如何创新?

罗斯:我在JP Morgan呆了太久了,做了太多事情了。其中一件就是我有幸在一个巨大的集团的体内,从平地而起,建立了一套全新的业务。那是一个让我能够非常有创业精神的机会。那是在1980年代后期和1990年代初期,政府允许我们开展很多以前不允许的投资银行业务。我就招集了几个同事,来从一张白纸开始,建立一整套股权业务(Equity Business),包括销售、交易、研究(Research)、承销(Underwriting)、金融衍生品(Derivatives)。我们一共用了十年来建它。十年之后,它从一分钱没有,到二十亿美金的营业额,十亿美金的利润。而今天,它已经是全球第一了。所以,能在一个大公司里面,从零开始,建立一座大厦,是很让人惊叹的。我们当时需要把好多好多东西凑到一起。我们要找到正确的人,要建立一个正确的文化,还要让这个业务有资金支持。这一切太好玩了。

四、如何在金融业成就自己?

颜晓川:能做到这么厉害,最重要的是什么?

罗斯:你一定要对你选的队友格外小心。对我来说,这是绝对的第一重要。聪明的人很多。但是,智商和能力,达到一定的程度就行了。而真正决定成败的是他们是否和你的看法一致(share a common vision)。他们要认同你的目的和达到目的的手段。他们成为你的队友,是因为他们想拿那份工资吗?还是他们和你一样想建这栋大楼?你一定要知道,你的队友是否真的和你是一队的。这是最重要的,它的力量无比强大。

罗斯:你要不断地向你的客户展示和交流你的业务的价值,这样你的客户就有可能成为你的队友。他们能够看到跟你合作的价值,而不是和高盛、摩根斯坦利合作,虽然这两个公司也还行。要让客户跟你合作,而不是跟他们合作,你就需要让客户动心的理由。要把那个理由传达出去不是一件简单的事情。很多时候,是因为你更勤奋,更注重客户的需求而不是你自己的需求,或者你更有耐心。这中间要做很多的倾听,来回奔波。走到最后,你能不能把事情做成,都是要看别人的决定。这是一个People business.

五、如何金融人要有商科教育?

罗斯:你去读商学院,去读金融专业,你会学到那些在你刚入门的时候有用的“工具包”。但是,我不认为这是去读商学院最好的动机。我认为正确的动机是,你想洗心革面,让自己常长远的个人和职业规划受到深度的改变。

最功利的动机是找工作。这个功利的目的是可以达到的。你有商学院的学位后,找工作要容易许多。这是业界的一个形式,你是需要去走的。但是,我觉得商学院最重要的东西,不是让你很立竿见影地毕业后找到工作,或者在刚入行的时候的一些便利。而是更长远地影响你人生和职业发展的后劲。

颜晓川:去读商学院,学生应该抓些什么?

罗斯:就连Sloan和HBS这样的商学院也在两个东西中间找平衡。一个是提供一些实用的,立竿见影的“工具包”。但是,更重要的是,它给你一种审视这个世界的思路。它让你看到作为一个管理者或者领导者所面临的挑战,这让你不断成长。这是牵扯到长期职业发展的,而不是你刚入行的那几年的发展。商学院可以教给学生很多东西,这些东西不一定在开始的几年里有用,但是十几年后,这些东西能够显现出非常强大的力量来。

颜晓川:当你说“长期的”东西,都是些什么?

罗斯:我指的是如何当一个领导者。当一个领导者意味着什么?设计一个Vision是什么意思?怎样在变化的环境中处理问题?怎样冒险?怎样说服别人帮你做你想做的事情?当一个管理者意味着什么?管理和处理复杂性是什么意思?作为一个管理者,每天要把公司不同的业务,模块融合、交汇处理。所以,商学院的教育对你职业发展的作用,很可能是到15年,20年后才会体现出来。


Wayan knew that




From the education domain changes to blend the financial industry, hears most a problem is: how did you change to do finance?




Who knows? Until recently wayan looked at the list of executives at United States corporation.




President: trump




Vice President: pence




Secretary of state: chairman of exxon mobil




Deputy secretary of state: chairman of Goldman sachs




Deputy secretary of state: general electric chairman




White House chief of staff: lockheed Martin chairman




White House office deputy director: chairman gruman




White House deputy chief of staff: general dynamics chairman




Minister of science and technology: President of Boeing




Vice minister of science and technology: chairman of united technologies




Undersecretary of science and technology: President of general motors




Secretary of energy: chairman of Raytheon




Undersecretary of energy: chairman of ford motor co




Undersecretary of energy: honeywell chairman




Treasury secretary: Morgan Stanley chairman




Undersecretary of the Treasury: chairman of bank of America




Vice minister of finance: chairman of citigroup inc




It was an interview with carleton Ross, the former vice-chairman of jpmorgan chase, about why he chose finance. The reason is that:




Finance is to use financial capital and intellectual capital to make products, to help customers deal with all kinds of difficulties, like!




Financial firms that have a long history and are particularly large look staid to outsiders, and have opportunities to innovate at all times.




In finance, it's fun to play with a group of smart teammates.




In finance, "emotional intelligence" is more needed. How to turn customers into friends is a lot of fun.




Rose: I had an internship in the Sale and Trading department at JP Morgan's New York headquarters. At that time, I got up at 5:00 in the morning and went to work. When I left, I always joked about this vacation without life. But when you walk into the company building on Madison avenue, one of the busiest in New York City, and look at a prominent sign that says JP Morgan, you admire the global financial behemoth that was built in 1799 but still stands tall.








Even more impressive is the fact that the company, now worth more than $2 Trillion, is already the largest financial institution in the United States, and in just over a decade has gone from almost no investment banking to one of the world's three largest investment Banks.




And behind this, there is one of the most important people behind the scenes: carton rose, the founder of Sales and Trading and the founder of Equities Business, the group's former vice chairman who oversaw Global Investment Banking and Global Equities.




We can hear from him in the heart of the financial industry:




I. what skills do you need to enter finance?




Ross: I don't think you need to be an economics or finance major to be successful in finance. You can have any degree. Both physical and English.




Of course, some basic skills, such as accounting, are necessary. However, all of these can be taught during a short period of company training.




I think the most important thing is you have to be able to think, you have to be able to write, you have to be able to analyze, you have to be able to work with them, whether it's a small group or a large group. These are skills you can gain by studying in any major.




Yan xiaochuan: as far as the financial industry is concerned, if I am a finance major or a business major, how can I give myself an advantage over other majors such as physics graduates?




Ross: advantage? My answer is yes and no. I think there are some "toolkits" in the education of business school (or finance) that are useful.




These "toolkits" can give you an edge when you're starting out. These "toolkits" include basic accounting, finance, and, many people don't realize, operations management is extremely important. At least in my experience.




Yan xiaochuan: operation management is important for finance? Isn't that a producer?




Ross: we used to do ipos for other people. A lot of companies are industrial companies. When we did the research, I went to their workshop to see, to interview. Just because I learned operation management, I could understand the whole process. In addition, operation management teaches you how to manage complex systems from the front end to the back end.




Second, why choose the financial industry?




Why did you do finance and why did you like it?




Rose: I've always liked finance. Because finance is Intellectual product, not Physical product. Finance is to use Financial capital and intellectual capital to make products. That's what attracted me to it.




Second, I really enjoy working with clients and helping them deal with all kinds of difficulties. Finance is an industry where you can make a thought and then graft it onto a client. The same goes for consulting, but I prefer finance. Because there's a financial market for finance.




Yan xiaochuan: you like helping customers very much. Do you feel a sense of accomplishment?




Rose: I like to solve problems and solve them. I see finance as a problem solving job. Some people go into finance because they like to do something new abstractly. I don't think so. I've always thought of finance as a set of tools to solve a client's problem. That's what I'm interested in. Some people just like to immerse themselves in the world of their own thinking to play his imagination, but separate themselves from customers. For me, my motivation is to help companies and individuals solve problems, help them do interesting things, and then make their business more successful.




Rose: let's put it that way. Part of finance is financial engineering. It's the same thing as an engineer. The same difference is that some engineers build a bridge so that people can walk from one side of the river to the other. And that's the same motivation that I have, that I have for people to go from point A to point B. But there are engineers who are motivated to build Bridges because they like to build Bridges, and they like to put pieces together and say, look, I built a bridge. But they were not interested in the purpose or function of the bridge.




Third, how to do innovation in the financial industry?




Ross: we tend to think of financial companies that are very old, very big, very old-fashioned. Entrepreneurship is only possible in a trendy place like silicon valley, where new companies grow like spring grass. I don't think that stereotype is right. In any field, not only in finance, but also in any good company, we are always creating new ourselves. We are always looking for new ways and paths to do things. There are a lot of ways you can start a business. You don't have to go to a garage and start a business in it. It makes sense, but it's not for everyone.




Yan xiaochuan: how do you innovate in JP Morgan?




Rose: I've been in JP Morgan too long and done too much. One of them was that I had the privilege of building a whole new set of businesses from the ground up in a huge corporation. It was an opportunity for me to be very entrepreneurial. That was in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the government allowed us to do a lot of investment banking that was not allowed before. I recruited several colleagues to start with a blank sheet of paper to set up a whole set of Equity Business, including sales, trading, Research, Underwriting and Derivatives. We've been building it for ten years. Ten years later, it went from zero cents to $2 billion in revenue and $1 billion in profit. Today, it's number one in the world. So it's amazing to be able to build a building from scratch in a big company. We needed to put a lot of stuff together. We need to find the right people, we need to build the right culture, and we need to get this business funded. It's all so much fun.




How to be successful in finance?




Yan xiaochuan: what's the most important thing to be able to do so well?




Rose: you have to be very careful with your teammates. To me, that's absolutely the first thing. There are many wise men. However, IQ and ability, to a certain degree. What really matters is whether they share a common vision. They need to identify with your purpose and the means to achieve it. Are they your teammates because they want that salary? Or do they want to build the building just like you do? You have to know if your teammates really are on your team. That's the most important thing, and it's incredibly powerful.




Rose: you have to constantly show and communicate the value of your business to your customers, so that your customers can become your teammates. They can see the value of working with you, rather than with Goldman sachs and Morgan Stanley, although both firms are doing just fine. To get your clients to work with you, not with them, you need a reason for them to be interested. It is not easy to convey that reason. A lot of times, it's because you're more diligent, more focused on the needs of your customers than your own, or you're more patient. There's a lot of listening going on, back and forth. At the end of the day, it's up to other people to decide if you can get things done. This is a People business.




Five, how should financial person have business division education?




Rose: you go to business school, you go to finance, and you learn the "" kits" "that are useful when you're just getting started. But I don't think that's the best incentive to go to business school. I think the right motivation is that you want to change the way you think about your long-term personal and career plans.




The most utilitarian motive is to find work. This utilitarian purpose is achievable. After you have a business school degree, it is much easier to find a job. It's a form of the industry, and you need to go. But I think the most important thing about business school is not that you get a job immediately after graduation, or that you get some convenience at the beginning of your career. It's something that will affect your life and career in the long run.




Yan xiaochuan: what should students catch when they go to business school?




Ross: even business schools like Sloan and HBS balance two things. One is to offer some practical, immediate "kits." But, more importantly, it gives you a way of looking at the world. It allows you to see the challenges of being a manager or a leader, and it allows you to grow. This is a long term career development, not a few years into your career. Business schools can teach students a lot of things that may not be useful in the first few years, but can be very powerful in a dozen years.




Yan xiaochuan: when you say "long-term" things, what are they?




Rose: I mean how to be a leader. What does it mean to be a leader? What does it mean to design a Vision? How to handle problems in a changing environment? How to take a risk? How do you persuade others to do what you want? What does it mean to be a manager? What does it mean to manage and handle complexity? As a manager, I need to integrate and interact different business modules of the company every day. So the impact of b-school education on your career is likely to be felt in 15 years and 20 years.